Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation


The final phase of the management process is controlling. "Controlling means monitoring employees' activities, determining whether the organization is on target toward its goals, and making correction as necessary (Richard Daft ). Controlling ensures that, through effective leading, what has been planned and organized to take place has in fact taken place. Three basic components constitute the control function:

Controlling is ongoing process. An affective control function determines whether the organization is on target toward its goals and makes corrections as necessary.

These all managerial functions are necessary and are related and interrelated to each other.

The Scope Of Management

 Management is needed in all types of organized activities. Moreover, management principles are applicable to all types of organizations, including profit-seeking organizations (industrial firms, banks, insurance companies, small business, etc.) and not-for-profit organizations (governmental organizations, health care organizations. educations organizations, churches, etc.). Any group of two or more people working to achieve a goal and having resources at its disposal is engaged in management. Obviously, a manager's job is somewhat different in different types of organizations, exists in unique environments, and uses different technology. However, all organizations need the common basic activities: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

Management is also universal in that it uses a systematic body of knowledge including economics, sociology, and laws. This knowledge can be applied to all organizations, whether business, or government, or religious, and it is applicable at all levels of management in same organizations.