Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Informational Roles

 The processing of information is a key part of the manager's job. Three roles describe the informational aspects of managerial work:

 * The monitor role. This role involves seeking  current information from many sources. For example, the manager perpetually scans his environment for information, interrogates liaison contacts and subordinates and receives unsolicited information.

 * The disseminator role In their disseminator role, managers pass information to other, both inside and outside the organization.

 * The spokesperson role. In their spokesman role, managers send some of their information to people outside the organization about company policies, needs, actions, or plans.

Decisional Roles

 The manager plays the major role in his unit's decision-making system. Four roles describe the decisional aspects of managerial work:

 * The entrepreneur role. In his entrepreneur role,  managers search for improvement his unit to adopt it to changing conditions in the environment.

 * The disturbance handler role. This role involves responding to high-pressure disturbances. For example, manager must resolve conflicts among subordinates or between manager's department and other departments.

 * The resource allocator role. In their resource  allocator role, managers make decisions about how to allocate people, budget, equipment, time and other resources to attain desired outcomes.

 * The negotiator role. The negotiations are duties of the manager's job. These activities involve formal negotiations and bargaining to attain outcomes for the manager's unit responsibility.

These ten roles are not easily separate: "No role can be pulled out of the framework and the job be left intact". However, this description of managerial work should be important to managers: "...the managers' effectiveness is significantly influenced by their insight into their own work" (L. Gulick).