Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation


A goal is a desired future state that the organization attempts to realize (Amitai Etzioni).


The term objective is often used interchangeably with goal but usually refers to specific targets for which measurable results can be obtained. Organizational objectives are the end points of an organization's mission. Objectives refer to the specific kinds of results the organizations seek to achieve through its existence and operations (William F. Glueck, and Lawrence R. Jauch) Objective define what it is the organization hopes to accomplish, both over the long and short term.

In this paper the terms "goals" and "objectives" are used interchangeably. Specifically, where other works are being referred to and those authors have used the term goal as opposed to objective, their terminology is retained.