Strategic Management: Formulation and Implementation

Strategic Management Models

Strategic management is a broader term that includes not only the stages already identified but also the earlier steps of determining the mission and objectives of an organization within the context of its external environment. The basic steps of the strategic management can be examined through the use of strategic management model.

The strategic management model identifies concepts of strategy and the elements necessary for development of a strategy enabling the organization to satisfy its mission. Historically, a number of frameworks and models have been advanced which propose different normative approaches to strategy determination. However, a review of the major strategic management models indicates that they all include the following elements:

  1. Performing an environmental analysis.
  2. Establishing organizational direction.
  3. Formulating organizational strategy.
  4. Implementing organizational strategy.
  5. Evaluating and controlling strategy.

Strategic management is a continuous and dynamic process. Therefore, it should be understood that each element interacts with the other elements and that this interaction often happens simultaneously.

The major models differ primarily in the degree of explicitness, detail, and complexity. These differences derive from the differences in backgrounds and experiences of the authors. Some of these models are briefly presented below.